Friday, August 15, 2008

Brazil Research

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Occurrence of the drill-to-root-docoqueiro strategus aloeus (linnaeus, 1758) (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in commercial coconut trees in the state of Roraima

Authors: Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira, Kátia de Lima Nechet, Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira, Moisés Mourão Júnior Paulo Roberto Valle Pereira da Silva, Kátia Nechet of Lima, Bernardo Vieira de Almeida-Halfeld, Moses Junior Mourao
The culture of the coconut tree is important in generation of income, in food and development of more than one hundred products, more than 86 countries located in the zone intertropical the globe. It is the most important of perennial crops, with ability to generate a system autosustentável of exploitation, as is the case of several countries in Asia, which is important source of income, but also the main source of protein and calories for the population (Cuenca, 1997). According Cuenca (1997), coconut is used almost everything: root, stipe, inflorescence, leaves, palm and mainly the result that, through a simple processing, generate different by-products or derivatives, which can be classified as: a) products used for by harnessing the power of albumen of solid fruit b) products fiber, used mainly by textile industry, c) other products of lower importance. In Brazil, production of coconut has always been of fundamental importance in life and economy of the people in Northeast country, mainly in the states of Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia. In the northern Brazil state of Para is the largest producer of coconut, with a participation of 15% of national production. Much of the production is destined for manufacture of processed foods. A raw material is processed in the region northeast and then transported to the South and southeast regions, where it is again processed in the form of ice cream, candy, products based on chocolate and yogurt, among others (CUENCA, 1997). In Roraima is difficult to estimate both the area planted as the quantity produced Each year, and this culture characterized by cultivation in areas of small producer and production for exclusively for the venda of water coconut. There are many species of insects associated with coconut. According Ferreira et al. (1998) there are 751 species listed as causing damage in palmáceas, the which about 160 are specific to coconut tree.
Among these the drill-to-root-docoqueiro (Strategus aloeus Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) has been observed often causing damage coconut trees in the state of Roraima. Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) drill-to-raizdo - coconut The drill-to-root is a problem for when the coconut tree planting is established in areas recently deforested or in its vicinity, since the larvae develop in plant material in decomposition. A how damaging is the adult who, attracted by the Young plant, in the range of one year and a half three years, causing his death, when Food tender tissue of the region apical meristem (Ferreira et al., 1998). It occurs in Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil. In Brazil has records of this insect occurrence in the states of Bahia, Ceara, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo and Sergipe (Ferreira et al., 1997; Ferreira et al., 1998; Souza et al., 2000) This insect is found in cane-deaçúcar (Saccharum officinarum), carnauba (Copernicia cerifera), coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm (Elaeis guineensis), gerivá (Syagrus romazoffiana) and other palm trees of the genus Syagrus (Ferreira et al., 1997; Souza et al., 2000). Description and Biology of Prague The adult beetle is one of colouring brown-black, nocturnal habit, measuring about 6 cm per 4 cm wide. It distinguishes itself by antennas short, lameliformes, with the segments terminals and large flat. The male differs from the female to present three horns cefalotorácicos recurvados and facing behind (Figure 1A). The larva, which feeds in plant material in decomposition, measured approximately 5.5 cm in length, color displays brancoleitosa and is characteristically escarabeiforme, or has the body curved, in the form of C (Figure 1B). A 2
pupa measuring 5 cm and also has milky-white color (Figure 1C). According Souza et al. (2000), the cycle biological duration of this insect has of approximately 11 months and the stages of development has the following period: hatching the egg: 21 days; larval period: 240 days; pre-pupae and pupae: 60 days. A B C Figure 1. Drill-to-root-of-coconut (Strategus aloeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): A) adult in dorsal view; B) larvae escarabeifome; C) pupa in the side view.
The adult is a gallery in the ground next to collect couple of palm, which remains sheltered during the day, and another gallery soon below collect the plant or the level of soil, within which is nourished (Figure 2A). When entering the underground bulb in search of food, the way an adult gallery in stipe that, upon reaching the part mole (meristemáticos tissue), causing the shriveling and consequent death of plant (Figure 2B). The attack of the drill-daraiz can be easily detected by presence of montículos of land in output the gallery in the ground, next to collect the plant attacked. To date was not reported the occurrence of this pest damage coconut trees in adults (Ferreira et al., 1997; Ferreira et al., 1998; Souza et al., 2000). A information that coconut trees do not adults suffer from the attack of this pest is confirmed in Roraima, since the observed damage in coconut trees in the state were found in plants of up to 1 year and a half. The severity of the damage is greater in young plants and may occur great mortality in this high infestations pest. 3
Measures to control
As measures to control recomendamse: make regular inspections to plantations new, to detect in plants wilted the holes left by the plague on the basis of plant or soil in order to adopt measures to control and prevent the economic damage planting. When they found the holes of entry for adults, the plant or on the ground there should be withdrawal of same with the aid of a thick wire, and hard-edge sharp. In plantations trade can be used trap light to attract and capture of adults (Matioli & Silveira-Neto, 1988). Remains of wood which are decomposition process of coming to planting must be destroyed to prevent the proliferation of this insect, because their larvae grow in this way (
Ferreira et al., 1997; Ferreira et al., 1998; Souza et al., 2000).
References CUENCA, M.A.G. Economic Importance the coconut tree. In: FERREIRA, J. M.S.; WARWICK, D.R. N.; SIQUEIRA, L.A. (eds.). The cultivation of coconut in Brazil. Aracaju: Embrapa-SPI, 1997. p.17-56. FERREIRA, J.M.S.; M. F. LIMA; D.L.Q. SANTANA; J.I.L. MOURA; L. A. SOUZA. Plagues of the coconut tree. In: FERREIRA, J. M.S.; WARWICK, D.R. N.; SIQUEIRA, L.A. (eds.). The cultivation of coconut in Brazil. Aracaju: Embrapa-SPI, 1997. P. 189-268. FERREIRA, J.M.S.; M. F. LIMA; D.L.Q. SANTANA; J.I.L. MOURA. Plagues of coconut tree. In: BRAGA SOBRINHO, R.; CARDOSO, J.E.; FREIRE, F.C.O. (Eds.).

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COT 016/2004 TOC 016/2004

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