Sunday, August 17, 2008

My Yard: Yucca Ox/Rhinobeetle Photos

This Strategus Aloeus, carcus has been in my yard for several months. It is located 3 feet from the yucca. The remains of the yucca tuberous root are on the paper. It looks like it was shredded. Ox/Rhinoceros beetle hole is highlighted in red.

Saturday, August 16, 2008

Annual Review of Entomology-Article

Annual Review of Entomology
Vol. 25: 309-339 (Volume publication date January 1980) (doi:10.1146/annurev.en.25.010180.001521)

Biology, Ecology, and Control of Palm Rhinoceros Beetles
G O Bedford

First page preview instead of abstract. Strategus is mentioned in first page.

Article is for subscribers or $20 per article.


Bactris Gasipaes a palm that is grown is South America. Pests list includes Strategus Aloeus

Scarab Beetles in Cold Weather-Abstract

Science 25 June 1982:Vol. 216. no. 4553, pp. 1409 - 1410DOI: 10.1126/science.216.4553.1409

Homeothermic Response to Reduced Ambient Temperature in a Scarab Beetle K. R. MORGAN 1 and G. A. BARTHOLOMEW 1
1 Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90024


Elephant beetles (Megasoma elephas; Scarabaeidae) weighing from 10 to 35 grams, respond homeothermically when ambient temperature is reduced below about 20°C in the laboratory. This metabolic response is not associated with locomotion or any other overt activity. Warming is initiated when the body temperature reaches an apparent set point of 20° to 22°C. Unlike the case for euthermic birds and mammals, energy metabolism and body temperature in these beetles are conspicuously oscillatory, with a given cycle in oxygen consumption peaking before the corresponding cycle in body temperature.Submitted on February 5, 1982Revised on April 13, 1982

20 ° C ≈ 55 ° F

Friday, August 15, 2008

Honduras Research

Comprehensive Article

Credits: Plant Diagnostics 2006 Universidad Zamorano, Honduras

Costa Rica Research

Pest List of Crops in Coast Rica

It's simply a list. Just confirms pest status over there.

Nicaragua Research

The link will take you to a Spanish Document which can be copied and pasted into Google translator below.

Dirección de investigacion e innovación tecnológica
Protocolo de investigacion
Evaluacion de 5 cebos naturales para el control de escarabajo rinoceronte (Strataegus aloeus linnaaeus) en 2 plantaciones comerciales de coco en la etapa juvenil en las condiciones agro ecológicas de El Recreo Rama, RAAS, Nicaragua 2008.
Elaborado Por.
Ing. Raùl Ariel Santos Cordonero
Marzo 2008

Evaluation of 5 natural baits to control rhinoceros beetle (Strataegus aloeus linnaaeus) in 2 commercial coconut plantations in the juvenile stage in the agro ecological conditions of El Recreo Rama, RAAS, Nicaragua 2008

Venezuela Research

Principales Plagas del Cultivo de la Palma Main Crop Pests of La Palma Aceitera en La Zona sur del Lago de Maracaibo Oil in the southern part of Lake Maracaibo

. This paper describes the weevil, the driller at the base of the ruling, brown bug, host, bachacos and birds, their respective damage and recommendations for their control. *Omar Quijada R. * Omar Quijada R. **Ángel Ochoa ** Angela Ochoa ***Carlos Berríos *** Carlos Berrios *Ingeniero Agrónomo. * Agricultural Engineer. M. M. Sc. Sc. Investigador, Researcher, I. I. FONAIAP-Estación Experimental Zulia. FONAIAP-Experimental Station Zulia. **Técnicos Asociados a la Investigación. ** Technical Research Partners. FONAIAP-Estación Experimental Zulia. FONAIAP-Experimental Station Zulia.

Drilling of the stem base (Strategus aloeus)

It is one of the most important pests attacking young palms (3-10 years old).
. In the area south of Lake Maracaibo has been found attacking plots of oil palm and coconut located in different sectors.

Biology and description
Este insecto pertenece al orden Coleóptera, familia Scarabalidae This insect belongs to the order Coleoptera, family and the Scarabalidae known under different names: congorocho, beetle, coconut rhinoceros, etc.. Cuando When the adult insect has a large (5,0-6,5 cm), is black or dark brown, the male can be recognized by submit three protuberances (horns or cachos).
. This insect bores near the base of the plant and construct galleries and 50 centimeters or more radical penetrates to the plate, such as internal tissues of the palm. Muy Very often destroys the meristema apical and the plant dies later. . According to records kept on experimental plots of oil palm, this insect in a year caused the deaths of 4.5% from the palms of a one hectare plot located in the banking sector, Columbus district.
Control Control
. There is no really effective treatment to prevent their attack. However, the following recommended control measures:
1. Collecting remains of dead trees and palms estípite old decomposing.
2. Collect and destroy insects that are found on the plantation.
3.. Apply granular insecticides (Furadán) to the ground where it detects the presence of the insect

How to translate PDFs

In order to translate a PDF:

Copy the text and place in translator below.


Go to Google's main site and click on the tools.

Brazil Research

The PDF was translated from Portuguese. Graphs and Illustrations are in PDF

Occurrence of the drill-to-root-docoqueiro strategus aloeus (linnaeus, 1758) (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in commercial coconut trees in the state of Roraima

Authors: Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira, Kátia de Lima Nechet, Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira, Moisés Mourão Júnior Paulo Roberto Valle Pereira da Silva, Kátia Nechet of Lima, Bernardo Vieira de Almeida-Halfeld, Moses Junior Mourao
The culture of the coconut tree is important in generation of income, in food and development of more than one hundred products, more than 86 countries located in the zone intertropical the globe. It is the most important of perennial crops, with ability to generate a system autosustentável of exploitation, as is the case of several countries in Asia, which is important source of income, but also the main source of protein and calories for the population (Cuenca, 1997). According Cuenca (1997), coconut is used almost everything: root, stipe, inflorescence, leaves, palm and mainly the result that, through a simple processing, generate different by-products or derivatives, which can be classified as: a) products used for by harnessing the power of albumen of solid fruit b) products fiber, used mainly by textile industry, c) other products of lower importance. In Brazil, production of coconut has always been of fundamental importance in life and economy of the people in Northeast country, mainly in the states of Ceara, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia. In the northern Brazil state of Para is the largest producer of coconut, with a participation of 15% of national production. Much of the production is destined for manufacture of processed foods. A raw material is processed in the region northeast and then transported to the South and southeast regions, where it is again processed in the form of ice cream, candy, products based on chocolate and yogurt, among others (CUENCA, 1997). In Roraima is difficult to estimate both the area planted as the quantity produced Each year, and this culture characterized by cultivation in areas of small producer and production for exclusively for the venda of water coconut. There are many species of insects associated with coconut. According Ferreira et al. (1998) there are 751 species listed as causing damage in palmáceas, the which about 160 are specific to coconut tree.
Among these the drill-to-root-docoqueiro (Strategus aloeus Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) has been observed often causing damage coconut trees in the state of Roraima. Strategus aloeus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) drill-to-raizdo - coconut The drill-to-root is a problem for when the coconut tree planting is established in areas recently deforested or in its vicinity, since the larvae develop in plant material in decomposition. A how damaging is the adult who, attracted by the Young plant, in the range of one year and a half three years, causing his death, when Food tender tissue of the region apical meristem (Ferreira et al., 1998). It occurs in Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil. In Brazil has records of this insect occurrence in the states of Bahia, Ceara, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo and Sergipe (Ferreira et al., 1997; Ferreira et al., 1998; Souza et al., 2000) This insect is found in cane-deaçúcar (Saccharum officinarum), carnauba (Copernicia cerifera), coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm (Elaeis guineensis), gerivá (Syagrus romazoffiana) and other palm trees of the genus Syagrus (Ferreira et al., 1997; Souza et al., 2000). Description and Biology of Prague The adult beetle is one of colouring brown-black, nocturnal habit, measuring about 6 cm per 4 cm wide. It distinguishes itself by antennas short, lameliformes, with the segments terminals and large flat. The male differs from the female to present three horns cefalotorácicos recurvados and facing behind (Figure 1A). The larva, which feeds in plant material in decomposition, measured approximately 5.5 cm in length, color displays brancoleitosa and is characteristically escarabeiforme, or has the body curved, in the form of C (Figure 1B). A 2
pupa measuring 5 cm and also has milky-white color (Figure 1C). According Souza et al. (2000), the cycle biological duration of this insect has of approximately 11 months and the stages of development has the following period: hatching the egg: 21 days; larval period: 240 days; pre-pupae and pupae: 60 days. A B C Figure 1. Drill-to-root-of-coconut (Strategus aloeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): A) adult in dorsal view; B) larvae escarabeifome; C) pupa in the side view.
The adult is a gallery in the ground next to collect couple of palm, which remains sheltered during the day, and another gallery soon below collect the plant or the level of soil, within which is nourished (Figure 2A). When entering the underground bulb in search of food, the way an adult gallery in stipe that, upon reaching the part mole (meristemáticos tissue), causing the shriveling and consequent death of plant (Figure 2B). The attack of the drill-daraiz can be easily detected by presence of montículos of land in output the gallery in the ground, next to collect the plant attacked. To date was not reported the occurrence of this pest damage coconut trees in adults (Ferreira et al., 1997; Ferreira et al., 1998; Souza et al., 2000). A information that coconut trees do not adults suffer from the attack of this pest is confirmed in Roraima, since the observed damage in coconut trees in the state were found in plants of up to 1 year and a half. The severity of the damage is greater in young plants and may occur great mortality in this high infestations pest. 3
Measures to control
As measures to control recomendamse: make regular inspections to plantations new, to detect in plants wilted the holes left by the plague on the basis of plant or soil in order to adopt measures to control and prevent the economic damage planting. When they found the holes of entry for adults, the plant or on the ground there should be withdrawal of same with the aid of a thick wire, and hard-edge sharp. In plantations trade can be used trap light to attract and capture of adults (Matioli & Silveira-Neto, 1988). Remains of wood which are decomposition process of coming to planting must be destroyed to prevent the proliferation of this insect, because their larvae grow in this way (
Ferreira et al., 1997; Ferreira et al., 1998; Souza et al., 2000).
References CUENCA, M.A.G. Economic Importance the coconut tree. In: FERREIRA, J. M.S.; WARWICK, D.R. N.; SIQUEIRA, L.A. (eds.). The cultivation of coconut in Brazil. Aracaju: Embrapa-SPI, 1997. p.17-56. FERREIRA, J.M.S.; M. F. LIMA; D.L.Q. SANTANA; J.I.L. MOURA; L. A. SOUZA. Plagues of the coconut tree. In: FERREIRA, J. M.S.; WARWICK, D.R. N.; SIQUEIRA, L.A. (eds.). The cultivation of coconut in Brazil. Aracaju: Embrapa-SPI, 1997. P. 189-268. FERREIRA, J.M.S.; M. F. LIMA; D.L.Q. SANTANA; J.I.L. MOURA. Plagues of coconut tree. In: BRAGA SOBRINHO, R.; CARDOSO, J.E.; FREIRE, F.C.O. (Eds.).

Pragas de Fruteiras Tropicais de
Importância Agroindustrial. Fortaleza:
Embrapa-SPI, 1998. p. 81-118.
LOPES; C. OMOTO. Entomologia
Agrícola. Piracicaba: FEALQ, 2002. 902 p.
Armadilhas luminosas: funcionamento e
utilização. Boletim Técnico 28, Belo
Horizonte: EPAMIG, 1988. 44 p.
SILVA. Principais pragas do dendezeiro e
seu controle. In: VIÉGAS, I.J.M.;.MULLER,
A.A (Eds.). A cultura do dendezeiro na
Amazônia Brasileira. Belém: Embrapa-
CPATU, 2000. p. 275-334.

COT 016/2004 TOC 016/2004

Mexico Research in English

One of the few English Articles on the Internet. To do any research on Strategus Aloeus, lots of translation is needed.

I don't know if I violated copyright laws by only putting excerpts, but the article is wordy.

Link to full article:

The Presence of Strategus aloeus L. (Scarabaeidae) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico

Saúl Sánchez S. y Carlos F. Ortiz G

ASD Oil Palm Papers, No.16, 31-34. 1997

S. aloeus is found in widespread distribution in the Americas, and is a common pest in coconut and oil palms (Bondar 1940, Hartley 1967, Mariau 1976, Genty et al. 1978, Chinchilla 1997). It is found in almost all the states of Mexico (Morón et al. 1997), and has been classified as a species detrimental to the coconut palm (García 1981).

Besides Salcedo's (1986) report on the presence of O. rhinoceros in Tabasco, there is no indication of its presence in Mexico. However, various observations point to the incorrect identification of Strategus aloeus as O rhinoceros

. Strategus aloeus normally restricts its activity to young palms, especially those in their first two years in the field (Hartley 1967, Lever 1969, Mariau 1976, Genty et al. 1978).

The feeding patterns of O. rhinoceros and S. aloeus show notable variation. The first species establishes itself in the bud of the plant and then works its way down to the terminal shoot. The adult S. aloeus digs into the base of the plant and then works its way up (Child 1964, Piggott 1964, Fremond et al. 1966, Hartley 1967, Lever 1969, Genty et al. 1978).

Strategus Aloeus Research-Around the World We Go!!

Knowing that the pest was Strategus Aloeus, I began a new research.

I googled Stategus Aloeus and Palm. Bingo. I got lots of hits.

The problem: None of the articles originated in the United States.
This is a real setback.

Integrated Pest Management is based on research of pests in the United States.
The Border Patrol can't control these bugs-LOL

Management of S. Aloeus in Texas has probably been done through "word of mouth".

This bug is not listed on any pesticide label.
Physical controls are written in Spanish or Portugese.
This insect probably has different habits in Texas than in the tropics. It may have a longer larval state.
I wonder if it has a winter "dormancy"? More questions than answers.

The Villian

This is the local Rhinoceros Beetle.

It's scientific name is: Strategus Aloeus.
Genus: Coleoptera

Family: Scarabaeidae
Subfamily: Dynastinae

This picture was taken in my garden on Monday, August 11, 2008.
This is not the best quality photograph for identification purposes.
For a better quality photograph try this link:

This fellow has been killing my palms.

How to Tell if its Ox Beetle, Strategus Aloeus

A burrow hole several inches from the base of the plant. About the size of a quarter.

Two of my infested palms have burrow holes right next to the palm. One palm had a burrow hole over 3 feet away.

August 7th: How I found out what was killing my palms

August 7th, 2008

I found out what was killing my palms.

When I first became interested in Palms, I discovered the International Palm Society. They have a wonderful forum at

From the Palm Talk Forum, I found out about the Palm Society of South Texas

A member of the Palm Society of South Texas was giving a talk at a the San Antonio Men's Garden Club. The meeting was open to the public. I'm so glad that I attended. In the presenation I learned that the rhinoceros beetle was the major pest of young palms in San Antonio.

I finally knew what was wrong!!!!

Thank God for the International Palm Society and their local chapter: Palm Society of South Texas.

Gosh....I've usually been able to solve gardening problems fairly easily, however, I would have never found out the problem if I hadn't attended the Palm Society presentation.

I feel like I need a "palm support group".....
Is there such as thing a "palm support" via IV (Intravenously Drip) ?

Links to "traditional" palm problems

When the problems began I went online and did research.

I was convinced I had a "typical garden variety" palm problem.

I certainly didn't think I had something that was not documented by the University of Florida. They seem to have information about every possible palm problem.

Palm Diseases from the University of Florida:
Palm Pests From the University of Florida

Palm Disease and Nutrition Problems from Clemson University:

From the University of Hawaii:

And was it rats?
My gosh, very possible in San Antonio. However, it's summer. The rats have got of plenty of food in the fields. Photo of rat hole in palm from the University of Hawaii:

Emotions involved when something like this happens

When something like this happens to your plants, you start to panic and become frazzled.

Was it a fungus?
I sent samples to pathologists.
I bought a bunch of fungicides.

August 4th: A third palm and a bit about palms.

August 4th 2008:

My Mediterranean Fan Palm wilted. Then, it's spear pulled out.
A little bit about palms: They are monocots with only one growth called the "bud". If the bud dies, the palm dies. The spear is the newest leaf, which is totally dependent on the bud. If the bud is dead, the spear will no longer adhere to the bud and will "pull out". The other fronds will often stay attached, but will eventually die.

July 30th: Another Palm

July 30th, 2008

A palm about 5 feet away exhibited the same symptoms.
The spear pulled. This was seedling. A rare two year old seedling, Sabal Brazoria or Sabal xTexansis.

Planted March 2008.

I knew it was a goner, I pulled it up to inspect the damage.

Here is a picture of the cavity in this poor baby

July 23rd: First Palm Lost

July 23 rd, 2008 :

First damaged palm. I went out in yard and saw this.

I had no idea what was wrong. The spear and two newest leaves were discolored.

This is a precious sabal minor: Given to me as a Mother's Day gift in 2006. It was my largest sabal minor. It was fine and healthy until that one day.

Since there are funguses, bugs and bacteria that can attack palms, I was very concerned. I looked for all the signs and symptoms and could find none.

No where did I read anything that said, "Check for rhinoceros beetles". If I had, damage to other palms may have been avoided.
However, because of this, I started watching my other palms like a hawk.