Sunday, August 17, 2008
Saturday, August 16, 2008
Vol. 25: 309-339 (Volume publication date January 1980) (doi:10.1146/annurev.en.25.010180.001521)
Biology, Ecology, and Control of Palm Rhinoceros Beetles
G O Bedford
First page preview instead of abstract. Strategus is mentioned in first page.
Article is for subscribers or $20 per article.
Homeothermic Response to Reduced Ambient Temperature in a Scarab Beetle K. R. MORGAN 1 and G. A. BARTHOLOMEW 1
1 Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
Elephant beetles (Megasoma elephas; Scarabaeidae) weighing from 10 to 35 grams, respond homeothermically when ambient temperature is reduced below about 20°C in the laboratory. This metabolic response is not associated with locomotion or any other overt activity. Warming is initiated when the body temperature reaches an apparent set point of 20° to 22°C. Unlike the case for euthermic birds and mammals, energy metabolism and body temperature in these beetles are conspicuously oscillatory, with a given cycle in oxygen consumption peaking before the corresponding cycle in body temperature.Submitted on February 5, 1982Revised on April 13, 1982
20 ° C ≈ 55 ° F
Friday, August 15, 2008
Credits: Plant Diagnostics 2006 Universidad Zamorano, Honduras
It's simply a list. Just confirms pest status over there.
INSTITUTO NICARGUENSE DE TECNOLOGIA AGROPECUARIA
Dirección de investigacion e innovación tecnológica
Protocolo de investigacion
Evaluacion de 5 cebos naturales para el control de escarabajo rinoceronte (Strataegus aloeus linnaaeus) en 2 plantaciones comerciales de coco en la etapa juvenil en las condiciones agro ecológicas de El Recreo Rama, RAAS, Nicaragua 2008.
Ing. Raùl Ariel Santos Cordonero
Evaluation of 5 natural baits to control rhinoceros beetle (Strataegus aloeus linnaaeus) in 2 commercial coconut plantations in the juvenile stage in the agro ecological conditions of El Recreo Rama, RAAS, Nicaragua 2008
Principales Plagas del Cultivo de la Palma Main Crop Pests of La Palma Aceitera en La Zona sur del Lago de Maracaibo Oil in the southern part of Lake Maracaibo
. This paper describes the weevil, the driller at the base of the ruling, brown bug, host, bachacos and birds, their respective damage and recommendations for their control. *Omar Quijada R. * Omar Quijada R. **Ángel Ochoa ** Angela Ochoa ***Carlos Berríos *** Carlos Berrios *Ingeniero Agrónomo. * Agricultural Engineer. M. M. Sc. Sc. Investigador, Researcher, I. I. FONAIAP-Estación Experimental Zulia. FONAIAP-Experimental Station Zulia. **Técnicos Asociados a la Investigación. ** Technical Research Partners. FONAIAP-Estación Experimental Zulia. FONAIAP-Experimental Station Zulia.
Drilling of the stem base (Strategus aloeus)
It is one of the most important pests attacking young palms (3-10 years old).
. In the area south of Lake Maracaibo has been found attacking plots of oil palm and coconut located in different sectors.
Biology and description
Este insecto pertenece al orden Coleóptera, familia Scarabalidae This insect belongs to the order Coleoptera, family and the Scarabalidae known under different names: congorocho, beetle, coconut rhinoceros, etc.. Cuando When the adult insect has a large (5,0-6,5 cm), is black or dark brown, the male can be recognized by submit three protuberances (horns or cachos).
. This insect bores near the base of the plant and construct galleries and 50 centimeters or more radical penetrates to the plate, such as internal tissues of the palm. Muy Very often destroys the meristema apical and the plant dies later. . According to records kept on experimental plots of oil palm, this insect in a year caused the deaths of 4.5% from the palms of a one hectare plot located in the banking sector, Columbus district.
. There is no really effective treatment to prevent their attack. However, the following recommended control measures:
1. Collecting remains of dead trees and palms estípite old decomposing.
2. Collect and destroy insects that are found on the plantation.
3.. Apply granular insecticides (Furadán) to the ground where it detects the presence of the insect
Authors: Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira, Kátia de Lima Nechet, Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira, Moisés Mourão Júnior Paulo Roberto Valle Pereira da Silva, Kátia Nechet of Lima, Bernardo Vieira de Almeida-Halfeld, Moses Junior Mourao
Pragas de Fruteiras Tropicais de
Importância Agroindustrial. Fortaleza:
Embrapa-SPI, 1998. p. 81-118.
GALLO, D.; O. NAKANO; S. SILVEIRA
NETO; R.P.L CARVALHO; G.C. DE
BATISTA; E. BERTI FILHO; J.R.P. PARRA;
R.A. ZUCCHI; S.B. ALVES; J.D.
VENDRAMIM; L.C. MARCHINI; J.R.S.
LOPES; C. OMOTO. Entomologia
Agrícola. Piracicaba: FEALQ, 2002. 902 p.
MATIOLI, J.C.; S. SILVEIRA-NETO.
Armadilhas luminosas: funcionamento e
utilização. Boletim Técnico 28, Belo
Horizonte: EPAMIG, 1988. 44 p.
SOUZA, L.A.; P. CELESTINO FILHO; A.B.
SILVA. Principais pragas do dendezeiro e
seu controle. In: VIÉGAS, I.J.M.;.MULLER,
A.A (Eds.). A cultura do dendezeiro na
Amazônia Brasileira. Belém: Embrapa-
CPATU, 2000. p. 275-334.
I don't know if I violated copyright laws by only putting excerpts, but the article is wordy.
Link to full article:
The Presence of Strategus aloeus L. (Scarabaeidae) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico
Saúl Sánchez S. y Carlos F. Ortiz G
ASD Oil Palm Papers, No.16, 31-34. 1997
S. aloeus is found in widespread distribution in the Americas, and is a common pest in coconut and oil palms (Bondar 1940, Hartley 1967, Mariau 1976, Genty et al. 1978, Chinchilla 1997). It is found in almost all the states of Mexico (Morón et al. 1997), and has been classified as a species detrimental to the coconut palm (García 1981).
Besides Salcedo's (1986) report on the presence of O. rhinoceros in Tabasco, there is no indication of its presence in Mexico. However, various observations point to the incorrect identification of Strategus aloeus as O rhinoceros.
. Strategus aloeus normally restricts its activity to young palms, especially those in their first two years in the field (Hartley 1967, Lever 1969, Mariau 1976, Genty et al. 1978).
The feeding patterns of O. rhinoceros and S. aloeus show notable variation. The first species establishes itself in the bud of the plant and then works its way down to the terminal shoot. The adult S. aloeus digs into the base of the plant and then works its way up (Child 1964, Piggott 1964, Fremond et al. 1966, Hartley 1967, Lever 1969, Genty et al. 1978).
I googled Stategus Aloeus and Palm. Bingo. I got lots of hits.
The problem: None of the articles originated in the United States.
This is a real setback.
Integrated Pest Management is based on research of pests in the United States.
The Border Patrol can't control these bugs-LOL
Management of S. Aloeus in Texas has probably been done through "word of mouth".
This bug is not listed on any pesticide label.
Physical controls are written in Spanish or Portugese.
This insect probably has different habits in Texas than in the tropics. It may have a longer larval state.
I wonder if it has a winter "dormancy"? More questions than answers.
This picture was taken in my garden on Monday, August 11, 2008.
This is not the best quality photograph for identification purposes.
For a better quality photograph try this link: http://www.texasento.net/beetles.htm
This fellow has been killing my palms.
Two of my infested palms have burrow holes right next to the palm. One palm had a burrow hole over 3 feet away.
I found out what was killing my palms.
When I first became interested in Palms, I discovered the International Palm Society. They have a wonderful forum at http://www.palmtalk.org/
From the Palm Talk Forum, I found out about the Palm Society of South Texas http://www.palmsocietysouthtexas.org/
A member of the Palm Society of South Texas was giving a talk at a the San Antonio Men's Garden Club. The meeting was open to the public. I'm so glad that I attended. In the presenation I learned that the rhinoceros beetle was the major pest of young palms in San Antonio.
I finally knew what was wrong!!!!
Thank God for the International Palm Society and their local chapter: Palm Society of South Texas.
Gosh....I've usually been able to solve gardening problems fairly easily, however, I would have never found out the problem if I hadn't attended the Palm Society presentation.
I feel like I need a "palm support group".....
Is there such as thing a "palm support" via IV (Intravenously Drip) ?
I was convinced I had a "typical garden variety" palm problem.
I certainly didn't think I had something that was not documented by the University of Florida. They seem to have information about every possible palm problem.
Palm Diseases from the University of Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/TOPIC_Palm_Diseases
Palm Pests From the University of Florida http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/TOPIC_Palm_Pest_Insects
Palm Disease and Nutrition Problems from Clemson University:
From the University of Hawaii:
And was it rats?
My gosh, very possible in San Antonio. However, it's summer. The rats have got of plenty of food in the fields. Photo of rat hole in palm from the University of Hawaii:
Was it a fungus?
I sent samples to pathologists.
I bought a bunch of fungicides.
My Mediterranean Fan Palm wilted. Then, it's spear pulled out.
July 30th, 2008
A palm about 5 feet away exhibited the same symptoms.
The spear pulled. This was seedling. A rare two year old seedling, Sabal Brazoria or Sabal xTexansis.
Planted March 2008.
I knew it was a goner, I pulled it up to inspect the damage.
This is a precious sabal minor: Given to me as a Mother's Day gift in 2006. It was my largest sabal minor. It was fine and healthy until that one day.
Since there are funguses, bugs and bacteria that can attack palms, I was very concerned. I looked for all the signs and symptoms and could find none.
No where did I read anything that said, "Check for rhinoceros beetles". If I had, damage to other palms may have been avoided.
However, because of this, I started watching my other palms like a hawk.